Wednesday, February 13, 2013

First Aid Program Fundamental Part 8: Elements of a First-Aid Training Program

Program elements to be considered (continued):
4. Responding to Life-Threatening Emergencies
The training program should be designed or adapted for the specific worksite and may include first-aid instruction in the following:
Establishing responsiveness;
Establishing and maintaining an open and clear airway;
Performing rescue breathing;
Treating airway obstruction in a conscious victim;
Performing CPR;
Using an AED;
Recognizing the signs and symptoms of shock and providing first aid for shock due to illness or injury;
Assessing and treating a victim who has an unexplained change in level of consciousness or sudden illness;
Controlling bleeding with direct pressure;
Poisoning
• Ingested poisons: alkali, acid, and systemic poisons. Role of the Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222);
• Inhaled poisons: carbon monoxide; hydrogen sulfide; smoke; and other chemical fumes, vapors, and gases. Assessing the toxic potential of the environment and the need for respirators;
• Knowledge of the chemicals at the worksite and of first aid and treatment for inhalation or ingestion;
• Effects of alcohol and illicit drugs so that the first-aid provider can recognize the physiologic and behavioral effects of these substances.
Recognizing asphyxiation and the danger of entering a confined space without appropriate respiratory protection. Additional training is required if first-aid personnel will assist in the rescue from the confined space.
Responding to Medical Emergencies
• Chest pain;
• Stroke;
• Breathing problems;
• Anaphylactic reaction;
• Hypoglycemia in diabetics taking insulin;
• Seizures;
• Pregnancy complications;
• Abdominal injury;
• Reduced level of consciousness;
• Impaled object.
5. Responding to Non-Life-Threatening Emergencies
The training program should be designed for the specific worksite and include first-aid instruction for the management of the following:
Wounds
• Assessment and first aid for wounds including abrasions, cuts, lacerations, punctures, avulsions, amputations and crush injuries;
• Principles of wound care, including infection precautions;
• Principles of body substance isolation, universal precautions and use of personal protective equipment.
Burns
• Assessing the severity of a burn;
• Recognizing whether a burn is thermal, electrical, or chemical and the appropriate first aid;
• Reviewing corrosive chemicals at a specific worksite, along with appropriate first aid.
Temperature Extremes
• Exposure to cold, including frostbite and hypothermia;
• Exposure to heat, including heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.
Musculoskeletal Injuries
• Fractures;
• Sprains, strains, contusions and cramps;
• Head, neck, back and spinal injuries;
• Appropriate handling of amputated body parts.
Eye injuries
• First aid for eye injuries;
• First aid for chemical burns.
Mouth and Teeth Injuries
• Oral injuries; lip and tongue injuries; broken and missing teeth;
• The importance of preventing aspiration of blood and/or teeth.
Bites and Stings
• Human and animal bites;
• Bites and stings from insects; instruction in first-aid treatment of anaphylactic shock.